Why Did Google Build a Phone and a Browser?

Microsoft was kind enough to comment that Google will have a tough time selling both a phone and an OS.

Microsoft Corp.’s Robbie Bach, head of the division that makes mobile-phone programs, said Google Inc. will have a hard time attracting partners to its wireless software after introducing its own handset.

Roughly Drafted toes the Apple-fanboy line that Android simply isn’t very important in the scheme of things:

But importantly, it will also expose Google’s tired attempt to beat Microsoft’s Window Mobile at its own game (without applying much creativity) as being much less important than the Android-enamored seem to think it is. Google isn’t changing the world with Android, it’s just ripping off an existing, unexceptional product. Google’s Android is not more special in the grand scheme of things than Compaq’s effort to clone the original IBM PC.

Both miss the point rather badly.

At least as I read the situation.

Google isn’t really interested in building a phone, any more than it is really interested in building a browser (Chrome), or even a phone OS (Android). Don’t misunderstand, I have no doubt the specific individuals working on those projects are highly motivated people who believe passionately in their products. I just don’t think having a phone, even a good phone is really directly crucial to Google’s corporate survival.

Why then, the Nexus One? Why Android? Why Chrome? Why Chrome OS? Why try to buy radio frequencies?

What Does Google Want?
Google is large, with lots of money, talent, resources, and leverage in the marketplace. It has a wonderful brand. It has cachet. It has no interest in being the same company in five years that it is now — it is maniacal about growth. So what does it do with its resources? To answer that question, you have to ask: What does Google want?

Google is not really interested in making a pot of money selling phones (They, er, have a pot of money already). That’s kinda far from their core business, search. They are not really hoping to provide email for every man woman or child, or move every person to Google Docs. I doubt they were crushed that they didn’t win the radio frequencies.

Google is, in a general sense, interested in leveraging new technologies. Particularly Internet technologies. Why not? If I was Google I would believe that if a new area of application space opened up, Google has a better than even chance to develop best-in-class revenue generating software from it. They do have some talent.

Put another way, Google figures if it competes on a level playing field, in a new area, it can win large. Trying to monetize a slightly better email client is a loser. The real success for Gmail? It pushed the state-of-the-art in browser apps. So did Google Maps. Google Docs. What does Android do? Pushes the state of the art in phones.

Oh, Android phones aren’t better than an iPhone, not yet; but the Nexus One and the Droid and such will push Apple to do things its closed mentality would rather not do. It will push battery technology — you need power to use a network machine all the time. It will push cellular companies to commoditize their bandwidth. Add in Google Voice, and you no longer need a separate voice plan. Having lots and lots of super-capable smartphones will push people (and then companies) to cloud data, which will make RIM unhappy but Google very happy. The list goes on.

What happened when Chrome was released? A mini javascript-engine war that continues today. Why is speed of Javascript execution so important to Google? All those applications run far faster with a better Javascript engine. So Chrome pushes Apple, Mozilla, Microsoft et al to improve their Javascript. Who really wins? The users, for sure, but Google wins big. The average capability of the web browser went way up, at relatively little cost to Google.

Google isn’t so much interested in selling the best phone, or providing the best browser.

Google is intent in raising the average in areas it thinks are key to its future.

This is what Google’s handset partners understand: they only really compete with Google if they don’t push the state of the art. As long as HTC and Motorola are pushing the bounds of what a smartphone can do, Google will be happy. If they slack, Google will produce a phone just advanced enough to give them a kick in the pants.

Put it another way — Google producing its own phone guarantees (as much as Google can) that Android (and by extension the cell phone industry) will not stagnate like Windows Mobile.

That’s why Mozilla and Opera aren’t afraid of Chrome — they only need to be afraid when they choose to stop innovating.

And this is why status-quo industries should be afraid when Google casts an eye their way. Put Chrome OS in every TV — scare the crap out of cable companies and Dell at the same time. Create the ‘Google Web TV Network’ and program it from crowd-sourced web submissions? NBC might keel over. Etc…

It is an interesting approach — Google is basically spending resources to accelerate areas of technology into the Garage.

Who knows where Google might push innovation next? Make no mistake, they do this to make money. It’s just that they have a different conception of how they’ll make money from an advanced phone than say, Motorola does. Or Apple does.

Hard to bet against them.

Explore posts in the same categories: Tech

Tags: , , , , , , ,

You can comment below, or link to this permanent URL from your own site.

92 Comments on “Why Did Google Build a Phone and a Browser?”

  1. This was a brilliant post and I love it. Double thumbs up.

  2. Sachin Says:

    i completely agree with your thoughts….

  3. Sam Says:

    very good insight, never saw it this way

  4. Rick Says:

    The posessive of “it” is “its”, not “it’s”.

  5. Right on. Gooogle is smarter than a lot of people think businesswise.

    They’re basically trying to commoditise their complimentary products. Back when they announced Chrome (the operatingsystem) I wrote about it here: http://www.maximise.dk/blog/2009/07/why-google-is-making-operating-system.html

    I’ve later heard Eric Schmidt admit to this exact strategy on The Charlie Rose show.

  6. “Google is intent in raising the average in areas it thinks are key to its future.”

    It also aims to keep the new play-field “open”. If we have a new platform similar to iPhone, then we know Google might find it difficult to enter such market (case in point Google Voice in iPhone). By betting on creating “open” environments, it ensures its leadership in leveraging that environment for its benefit.

    It is a Win-Win for all but slogs.

    • Rusky Says:

      Keeping it open is part of raising the average. When it’s closed, /nobody/ can put Google Voice on the iPhone. When it’s open, anyone can innovate and the average goes up.

  7. Andy Says:

    Google’s strategy reminds me of that employed by mobile operators. Google would like consumers to see the value as being the network.

    Mobile operators started producing their own handsets a few years ago for this reason too. No network service wants a dominant handset holding their service to ransom, especially by a service competitor.

  8. ratnesh Says:

    excellent post.

  9. Imam Nirwan Says:

    That’s a wonderful opinion… 🙂

  10. sedwards Says:

    I don’t disagree with you, but I think what you are describing is just a tactic in Google’s overall strategy. Above all else, Google wants you to keep using their services, so they can deliver customized advertising to you. If you’re using their phone or one of its Android brethren, they can be more certain that you are also touching one or more of their contact points.

    This, I believe, is what makes Google DNS so interesting. It is their attempt to see what you are doing even if you’re not using one of their services.

  11. obamapacman Says:

    Actually, Google, similar to any business, is interested in MAKING MONEY. Via ads and access to all your personal information.

  12. Adam Says:

    I think you’ve completely missed the point.

    Google is a giant advertising agency. How you could write so much about them without mentioning AdWords is baffling.

    The reason cell phone manufacturers will use the Android operating system is because Google gives them a cut every time an ad is clicked (in the web browser, through Google Maps, Places, or other apps). Microsoft was licensing their software and requiring manufacturers to pay big money for it, Google pays them! The OS is slick, the marketplace is growing, and companies like HTC will jump at the chance to sell a “Google Phone” to gain market share. There was just a great interview with the HTC chairman about their business relationship.

    It’s the less-than-free model. There was a great article by a similar name not too long ago about Google Maps turn by turn directions…the other directions companies would charge $100-200 per handset, Google pays you for every click. Think it will be long before GM or Nissan or someone will introduce an in car dash based on the Android system? Sooner than you think.

    Google is not in the market to make the internet experience better…not directly at least. Like a lot of what they do it’s a nice fringe benefit. Google is in the business of getting you to use one of their online portals (gmail, Chrome), controlling major content centers (youtube, Google Docs), and controlling the medium in which ads can be delivered (buying wireless spectra, offering non-internet ads).

    It’s all about selling advertising.

    • designbygravity Says:

      Yes, it is all about the advertising; but as I’ve pointed out elsewhere the only place Google really makes money seems to be with search advertising. Search is the simplest application they have — don’t think they don’t know it. They need the net ecosystem (including mobile, television, media centers, etc.) to be vastly more capable if they are to deploy complex applications compelling enough for users to use with advertising.

      • Adam Says:

        I think you are only seeing part of the picture calling it “search.” It’s AdWords.

        A web search takes place from google.com or other browsers/devices/web pages that use the Google search engine. Yes, AdWords are displayed there and Google makes lots of money when users click on these.

        But Google is creating areas of opportunity where AdWords can be used and are expanding it outside of the traditional internet. Google’s desire to improve these areas is to make them viable revenue streams.

        Because Google is raking in the dough through AdWords they are able to create completely a new type of business relationships with manufacturers, one that puts the competition at a huge disadvantage. By paying manufacturers a cut of the ad revenues when they use a Google product (like the Android OS) there will be strong incentive for manufacturers to access this new revenue stream and they will be happy to sign up.

        I agree with you that Google will leverage their size and talent to help standardize industries and push manufacturers for better products. However to say that is Google’s ultimate goal (“what Google wants”) is misguided.

        You also said “As long as HTC and Motorola are pushing the bounds of what a smartphone can do, Google will be happy. If they slack, Google will produce a phone just advanced enough to give them a kick in the pants.”

        What you failed to mention is that the Nexus One is actually made by HTC. You imply that Google is making this phone…they designed it but HTC built it.

    • Rusky Says:

      They don’t necessarily need you to use their products, they get money from ads on non-Google sites. While it is a part of their plan, directly making the internet better is another part of it, because it means more people will use it and thus see their ads.

    • designbygravity Says:

      Adam, I didn’t think there was anyone who didn’t understand that HTC manufactured the Nexus One. I failed to mention it because I assumed it was obvious, and irrelevant.

      The important thing is the role Google had in specifying the phone’s capabilities. Judging by press reports, Google had larger hand in guiding the phone’s development than Microsoft has had in years. Thank god.

  13. jamie Says:

    still chose the iphone over the goog equiv…

  14. G Shubert Says:

    “Oh, Android phones aren’t better than an iPhone, not yet; but the Nexus One and the Droid and such will push Apple to do things it’s [sic] closed mentality would rather not do.”

  15. GrepZen Says:

    Well done. I appreciate that this didn’t deteriorate into Google or Apple or even MS fan boy drivel. –thank you.

    Insightful, helpful, a good read. Thank You again!

  16. Malatesta Says:

    “As long as HTC and Motorola are pushing the bounds of what a smartphone can do, Google will be happy. If they slack, Google will produce a phone just advanced enough to give them a kick in the pants.”

    Right, except Google doesn’t make phones. The Nexus One is made by HTC.

    There is no Google/Android phone that pushes the bounds of what a smartphone can do. Name one? The HTC HD2 is as good if not better than the Nexus One.

    So sorry, but have to disagree with you there. Android is a mediocre platform riding on the Google *image* right now, nothing more. It’s not bad, don’t get me wrong, but it far, far from earth shattering. And Droid is actually just junk.

    • Rusky Says:

      It’s what Android does right that helps Google. It’s open and it doesn’t need a voice plan to name two things.

    • designbygravity Says:

      It’s not that Google makes the phone, rather they put software on it that stresses the hardware. This means that HTC (in this case) had to push their design farther. As to whether they succeeded, that is a different point — they still *tried* to make it better.

      I could have said “will mandate a phone” instead of “produce”; same difference as far as the marketplace is concerned.

  17. jjray Says:

    My take is similar to yours but with a different emphasis.
    iPhone and Android, Deja Vu All Over Again (1-11-20 post)

  18. Excellent.

    Now somebody should do the same to Google and make sure they don’t settle too comfortably in their search monopoly. Microsoft? Gosh.

  19. Jason Wagner Says:

    Exception post! Great insight.

  20. fukkbok Says:

    thanks mate for the great share..keep it up….

  21. christefano Says:

    All good points. Not enough people are asking the questions you bring up. Thanks!

    > Google is not really interested in making a pot of
    > money selling phones … That’s kinda far from their
    > core business, search.

    Their core business is actually advertising, not search.

  22. christefano Says:

    Their core business is actually advertising, not search. This begs the question of how Google will integrate their tracking (courtesy of the DoubleClick acquisition) and advertising services into Chrome and Android appliances.

  23. […] designbygravity Share and Enjoy: These icons link to social bookmarking sites where readers can share and […]

  24. […] Why Did Google Build a Phone and a Browser?, Design By Gravity […]

  25. Kelly Smith Says:

    How can you miss the point so entirely?

    Google does not “have too much money”, what kind of argument is that? They’re an advertising company, selling ads all over the place, their phone, their OS, their software are outlets for ADS…

    This post is complete shit.

    • Chris Says:

      Gee, glad this is so important to you.

      I’ll say it again — advertising may be Google’s core business, but Google make all its money from adverts seen through search. The rest of Google’s products account for very little at the moment in terms of monetizing ads.

      Without search, there is (still) no Google.

  26. Antigoog Says:

    Google is spyware company using your information to serve ads.

    Fandroids like you are ignorant to Google’s invasion of information privacy.

    • Circlestrafe Says:

      Exactly! Not only invasion, but; “Oops, some privacy settings were switched to public… on accident. We’re sorry, it probably won’t happen again, until there’s another accident.”

  27. […] Google is intent in raising the average in areas it thinks are key to its future. – Why Did Google Build a Phone and a Browser? […]

  28. I’d concur with your conclusions. I think Google tends to see things in terms of moving entire industries forward, in order to move the needle on the how companies compete with one another.

    If creating a new browser, OS, or phone is the way to lead by example, then I think you’re right, that those things are in and of themselves sufficient to get Google to build them.

  29. Robert Says:

    I think you are spot on … Google isn’t intent on an “iPhone killer” or the like, but indeed, they are interested in opening up the needle’s eye that is telecom bandwidth and policies (texting at 1000/megabyte!), and other openness.

    I for one am not on the anti-iPhone bandwagon. The device is perfect. When I geek out I’m on a real computer, I want my handheld to be always stable, always reliable, and always on. I love the iPhone.

    Google is in fact operating much the same way as Apple. In fact, I wouldn’t be surprised if GOOG and AAPL colluded in some fashion on this overall strategy, just be chance, not in any pre-meditated fashion.

    That Apple moved the entire music industry (although anti-fanboys railed against Apple for DRM as if it were their first choice) and subsequently put a crack in the dam of cellular telecom. Face it, before iPhone it was a total nightmare of walled gardens built by paid engineers to produce the cheapest, semi-functional units that would pass. Apple on the other hand used Design to craft their product and that Google is able to widen the crack in the dam will only help us all.

  30. Aron M. Says:

    Thank you for this post. It would explain a lot if the goal is just, more, now.

  31. wilhelm reuch Says:

    Google is invading your privacy to sell ads. That is their business model (they probably call it something more positive :-)).

    Google doesnt bring anything new to the mobile business .. or anything better. Not for us users. It only brings a phone that secures the continued spying on us for their ad-selling business.

    They simply must do this. In a few years a big chunk of the internet access will be via mobile devices and Googles spiders dont work with people using apps from Apples app-store. And I very seldom use google search on the iphone.

    This desperation from Google started to be open in public in august when they turned on Apple and filed a complaint to the FCC when Apple refused them hijacking the phone part of the iphone.

    As late as october Google denied publically ever starting to sell hardware.

    So Google seems not to be run after some masterplan. And they do nothing for the public good (not anymore). They seem like company in panic … the clock is ticking and every iphone/touch (and other makes) device sold is a threat to their ad-selling business (appstore apps are closed to Google).

    Apple of course knows this. Why do you think Apple announced their purchase of a mobile ad agency the same day Google announced their phone? How long before Apple delivers their own search engine?

  32. […] Google is intent in raising the average in areas it thinks are key to its future. via designbygravity.wordpress.com […]

  33. Moktarino Says:

    “they only really compete with Google if they push the state of the art”


  34. […] Read the rest of this post on the original site Tagged: Google, Internet, Silicon Valley, Voices, digital, economy, hardware, innovation, mobile, software, Android, browser, Christopher Schanck, Chrome, Design By Gravity, Google | permalink Sphere.Inline.search("", "http://voices.allthingsd.com/20100113/why-did-google-build-a-phone-and-a-browser/"); « Previous Post ord=Math.random()*10000000000000000; document.write(''); […]

  35. Piotr Says:

    This is bullshit. Google is just a large uncoordinated company that has too much money and no strategy for the future. This is why they are working on so many things that look crazy.

  36. Spinchange Says:

    I would add Governments to the list of those they are willing to challenge and raise the bar on too 😉

    Your assessment rings even truer to me in the context of recent events in China. It’s a game changing attitude that is sending shock waves through the minds of the business community at large

    The China Calculation, WSJ link:

  37. stefano Says:

    great site sir,thanks for all the tips.i don’t want to spam but try http://www.moneymakerseoinfo.blogspot.com/ you will find interesting new ways to make money online!!
    good luck

  38. […] Why Did Google Build a Phone and a Browser? Microsoft was kind enough to comment that Google will have a tough time selling both a phone and an OS. Microsoft […] […]

  39. dsarna Says:

    As the GoggleGazer (www.googlegazer.com) I try to keep up with the comings and goings of Google, its friends and its enemies.
    The author is quite right.
    It must be said that both Chrome and Android are open source, as will be Chrome OS. Google has also made public millions of lines of its own code. Other vendors don’t grasp the significance of having tens, maybe hundreds of thousands of folks working to improve your products – on someone else’s dime.
    Google’s recent efforts are to spur overall growth or the markets – from which they will enjoy their share as the markets expand.

  40. Interesting Reading #396 – Detroit Auto Show, Killer whales Evolving, Netflix on Wii, Robot warfare, new SarcMark and much more… – The Blogs at HowStuffWorks Says:

    […] Why Did Google Build a Phone and a Browser? – “Microsoft was kind enough to comment that Google will have a tough time selling both a phone and an OS…” […]

  41. Vanessa Says:

    What insight into seeing the G big picture beyond the next push of technology but the reasoning behind it. Seeing how they innovate to raise standards and improve user experience along the way makes me think of watering the seeds that when they start to show will become enormous out of “no where” to the consumer.
    When in reality this is the only way to grow an advertising marketplace that keeps up with new communication channels.

  42. DannyB Says:

    Roughly Drafted wrote . . .

    Google’s Android is not more special in the grand scheme of things than Compaq’s effort to clone the original IBM PC.

    Wow. Just wow. In the grand scheme of things, Compaq’s effort to clone the original IBM PC was earth shattering. It changed the whole world. It’s like saying that the one little pebble that fell out of the dam is insignificant in the grand scheme of things. Yes, but that pebble was the first of a million pebbles holding up the dam.

    Let me give you another analogy from the 1980’s PC clone era.

    Why Android will succeed.

    There was the Mac. It was vastly superior to IBM PC and clones with MS-DOS and green screens. For the next decade the entire computer industry was described by Byte magazine as an effort to keep up with Apple.

    So why did MS-DOS and PC clones win in the market?

    Because numerous hardware makers could get the MS-DOS operating system.

    Look at it this way. There are all these hardware makers who want to build a phone, oops, I mean a PC. They’re not all just going to go away and say “oh, well, I guess I’ll get into a different business because Apple makes the iPhone, oops, I meant because Apple makes the Macintosh.”

    These hardware makers can’t get the iPhone OS, er, sorry, I meant to say the Mac OS for their hardware.

    So who are they gonna go to? Google, or back in the day, to Microsoft. Unlike MS-DOS, the Android OS is very open so they don’t have to worry about the analogy of Google making all the bucks while hardware makers starve on razor thin margins. IMO, the reason why Windows Mobile failed is because of this fear.

    So we’ll end up with a standard phone OS that runs on all (yes all) hardware eventually, and all carriers, while Apple is their own little closed garden.

    And Apple will just stand by and let this happen. Because those other phone makers would not build devices that are up to Apple’s sensibilities of style.

    • designbygravity Says:

      Good commentary. It is not clear to me that Android will win strictly because it is open; however it is clear that Google’s plan is to force high-performing open standards onto handsets; things like browsers, cameras, gps, etc.

      • DannyB Says:

        Actually, I was not suggesting so much that Android would win because it is open. I am suggesting it will win because every hardware maker that wants a cool OS that runs all of the “standard” or “cool” applications will put Android on their device for exactly the same reason that PC clones put MS-DOS on their device.

        The openness just reassures hardware makers that the razor thin hardware margins won’t happen again.

        Argument: but Android is not the only “cool OS”.

        No it is not. But it is the only cool OS that _already_ runs on so much hardware. iPhone is a closed garden. WebOS and Maemo, like Samsung’s TouchWiz only run on a small number of devices, and within one brand.

        Android is to multi-vendor phones as MS-DOS was to multi-vendor PC clones. It doesn’t have to be better. It just has to run on the most hardware.

        It’s a snowball effect. It’s already happening. Android already runs on two dozen devices from more hardware makers than you can count on two hands. And then more were just announced.

        I am no longer able to find an up to date list of Android devices anymore.

  43. Great post. I agree that google wants and is pushing companies to innovate, which is great for consumers and many companies.

    I disagree though that Google can win every battle on an open playing field. They have had one absolute monster hit with search, however, every other product has either been purchased or mediocre.

  44. I versteh nicht ganz was Ihr dagegen habt. Ich bin sehr zufrieden damit.

  45. […] Why Did Google Build a Phone and a Browser? Design By Gravity – Google isn’t so much interested in selling the best phone, or providing the best browser. Google is intent in raising the average in areas it thinks are key to its future. […]

  46. mwao Says:

    Another thing: google wants people to think of internet==google.

  47. […] companies) to cloud data, which will make RIM unhappy but Google very happy. The list goes on.  Design by Gravity Share and […]

  48. Nice inspiring blog, dude. I enjoy your posting. I am about to create blog about mobile phones, too.


  49. arun Says:

    nice topic and thanks for the information

  50. Onal Baker Says:

    nice post, this is what i need, thank for sharing, greetings

  51. Samantha Says:

    Nice blog, i like it, its informative,
    i will visit his blog more often.
    i like your article specially about
    Why Did Google Build a Phone and a Browser?


  52. The Swede Says:

    I saw this thread and couldn’t help diving in!

  53. i love mobile phones that can surf the net in lightning fast speed.”;

  54. mobile phones that have built in cameras are my favorite because they can capture those special moments and events ‘”,

  55. Thank You for sharing this! I think I could read it all day:)

  56. Hummm, Arrogance isn’t bliss achieving an technogasm. You know I have a cr-48(testing it and I just stumbled this article, as we speak and it is very much a reality. As for the phone well Android 3.0 is going to push the silly ipad out of the looping, orbit.

    Windows is old. Mac is a rocking chair for grandma and grandpa. We will need a technology sling shot for the future and most likely will be Chrome and Android.

  57. Thank you so much for this interesting read! I wish i had found this blog ages ago, so much great information…

  58. Hpwvqwpi Says:

    tattoo pictures words,

  59. great post, very informative. I’m wondering why the opposite specialists of this sector don’t understand this. You should proceed your writing. I’m sure, you have a great readers’ base already!

  60. Cedric Says:

    I’ve got study many of the articles or blog posts on your website now, and I enjoy your style of writing a blog. I included it to my favorites web page collection and will also be looking at again quickly.

  61. selling mobile phones to mobile phone recycling companies simply the best way to make extra cash and help enviroment.using a comparison site could make you extra £££

  62. I must i appreciate you for the efforts you’ve made in writing this publish. This has been an inspiration for me personally. I have passed this through to a friend. thankyou

  63. This specific posting, “Why Did Google Build a Phone and a Browser?
    Design By Gravity” illustrates the fact that you know everything that you r speaking
    about! I personally definitely approve. Many thanks ,Robby

  64. “Why Did Google Build a Phone and a Browser? Design By Gravity” was a splendid
    article, can’t wait to look at far more of your posts.
    Time to waste several time on the net haha. Thanks ,Jodi

  65. I needed to share this particular post, “Why Did Google
    Build a Phone and a Browser? Design By Gravity” along with my buddies on twitter.
    Ionly desired to distributed your remarkable posting!
    Thank you, Valeria

  66. how to get rid of acne scars are the marks which are purplish
    or white lines on the skin surface. If I could just get rid of How To Get Rid Of Acne scars.
    There’s no harmful chemicals like Kojic acid, and adaplene gel, it’s time to buy how to get rid of acne
    face wash regimen before the condition leaves themwith unsightly scars.
    Dennis Gross gives you tricks for making a pimple appear smaller, less noticeable, and keeping it smooth and the small comedones away.
    The history of the Internet for doorstep delivery.

  67. Hershel Says:

    This is really fascinating, You’re an excessively skilled blogger. I’ve joined your
    rss feed and look forward to in the hunt for extra of your magnificent post.
    Also, I have shared your web site in my social networks

  68. Wonderful beat ! I wish to apprentice while you amend your
    web site, how could i subscribe for a blog web site? The account aided me a acceptable
    deal. I had been tiny bit acquainted of this your broadcast offered bright clear idea

  69. Every weekend i used to visit this website, because i wish
    for enjoyment, since this this web page conations genuinely good funny data too.

Leave a Reply to Piotr Cancel reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.

%d bloggers like this: